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California Self Storage Association

State of Emergency, Moratoriums, Price Gouging

With the daunting amount of news and information coming at you constantly it is impossible for any one person to keep up. Our team curates and alerts you to the "must have” information to ensure you are in the know. Having relevant, current information helps you to make the best decisions possible.

  • Thursday, August 27, 2020 9:34 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)


    What are a Landlord's Obligations to its Tenants During the COVID-19 Pandemic?

    By Scott I. Zucker

    As we move into the fifth month of the pandemic there remain conflicting signs of our future. Infections are rising, deaths are mounting while research institutes and pharmaceutical companies race to find a cure through a vaccine. In the interim, we seek to find normalcy with working from home, creating virtual classrooms for our children, wearing masks while shopping, and enjoying outside-only dining at restaurants.

    For those invested and working in the self-storage sector of the industry, while we may have learned that our business was "essential" (at least under some definitions), the pandemic has left us with anxious tenants, un-visited facilities, increasing rent defaults and a new list of maintenance and safety protocols. COVID-19 has also left us with certain new and unique questions about the obligations of being a landlord.

    One of the first issues is how to handle late fees and the enforcement of the owner's lien due to a rent default. Significantly, with the imposition of multiple ambiguous and inconsistent statewide and municipal orders, the pandemic has led to either no late fees and no lien sales being imposed by operators for the last five months or the sporadic and cautious return of the owner's enforcement of its contractual and statutory rights in response to defaulting tenants.  Guidance on this issue has been difficult, since none of the laws that seek to protect struggling residential tenants or even small businesses truly intend to forgive a tenant's obligation to pay its rent or forestall a landlord from its right to be paid. But many hastily drafted executive orders, court orders and even state laws have resulted in confusing and incomplete directives as to the right that a self-storage operator may have when it comes to enforcing its contractual entitlement to late fees and, more importantly, its statutory self-help remedy of foreclosing on its lien over its tenant's stored goods. At this juncture, the only appropriate answer to the question of "Can I sell?" would be to thoroughly review and consider any statewide orders or laws that have been legislated as well as any orders or laws that may have been issued by local municipalities where the facility is located. As an interim measure, it is widely recommended that all lien notices be updated to include certain COVID-19 language to allow tenants to respond to a facility's default notice. The language might read something like: "If you are unable to pay your account in full because you were financially impacted by the COVID-19 Pandemic, please contact us to discuss your situation. Please note that in order to assist you, it will be necessary for you to provide us with medical confirmation if you or a family member had the virus or employment records if you became unemployed."

    The other issue that a self-storage landlord needs to consider is the risk of virus contact at the facility. Although the potential liability for asserting that a virus contact arose at a facility (as compared to a grocery store or even at home though another family member) is truly small, there is still a burden imposed on a self-storage operator, like all business owners, to ensure their property is, through ordinary care, as safe as possible. This is why operators are encouraged to develop cleaning protocols at their facilities where doors, handles, pin-pads and other surfaces are regularly cleaned and the operator creates an ongoing maintenance log to document these good faith, regular efforts at sanitation. Included in this ongoing documentation is the tracking and notice to employees and tenants of any recent visitors to the property that have tested as positive for the virus. Although there appears to be no law to require it, if that is the case and the facility is notified, it would be recommended that the facility post a notice acknowledging that the facility received notice that an infected person was on the premises and, since notification, the facility (and the areas where the person traveled on the property) have been sanitized for cleanliness. The decision to notify as compared to not notify may seem burdensome, but the benefit of making that disclosure (thereby permitting the tenant to make its own decision to enter) may ultimately create the difference between a successful or unsuccessful tenant injury claim. 

    Stay Safe and Happy Storing!


  • Thursday, August 13, 2020 10:04 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    Price Restrictions Remain Despite Lifting of Stay-at-Home Orders

    Joe Doherty posted on 7/15/2020 3:22:00 PM

    Price Restrictions Remain Despite Lifting of Stay-at-Home Orders  

    As many states’ stay-at-home orders are lifted and states are “reopened,” many storage operators ask whether it is permissible to return to business as usual as it relates to normal rent increases for both current and prospective tenants. The answer to that question is: it depends. 

    The first inquiry is whether your state has a price gouging restriction in effect. Most states do. Although these laws differ, they generally put a cap on raising prices for certain goods and services above a certain percentage from the amount charged immediately preceding an emergency declaration, subject to certain narrow exceptions. Some of these laws are clearly applicable to self storage, some clearly are not, and others are uncertain in scope. 

    These price gouging statutes are “activated” by a declaration of a state of emergency by either the Governor or the President. Many Governors’ powers are limited to only declare a state of emergency in 30-day intervals. As such, while an operator may see that their applicable emergency order is set to expire on a certain date, it is likely that it will be extended given the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. The current “expiration” date is likely more a reflection on the limitation of the Governor’s power, not that the state envisions that the disaster will conclude then. 

    Further, operators must remember that many states’ price gouging laws are activated by Presidential action too. President Trump declared a national emergency on March 13. That declaration remains in effect indefinitely. As such, before any rent increase is considered, an operator must look to see if the President has lifted the national emergency declaration as well as whether the Governor(s) of the states within which you operate has lifted the state emergency declaration – and not just the shelter-in-place or similar order, as discussed below. 

    State of Emergency Declarations vs. Stay-at-Home Orders 

    Importantly, a declaration of a state of emergency is different from a stay-at-home order that required individuals to limit movement outside of their residence except for essential activities during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. While lifting of stay-at-home orders ensures that storage operators may continue to remain open for business, they are not the controlling orders for purposes of potential rent increases. 

    The President and Governors traditionally declare a state of emergency when they believe a disaster has occurred that is severe enough that it will require the government to deploy resources to states, cities, and counties on a more expedited timeline. Oftentimes, these orders will permit the President and Governor to bypass certain laws and regulations that would otherwise be applicable, recognizing that time is of the essence. A state of emergency could be declared for hurricanes, wildfires, blizzards, numerous other natural or man-made disasters, or as is currently the case across the country, the COVID-19 pandemic. 

    These orders generally do not require a citizen to take particular action. However, as outlined above and among other things, many states of emergency declarations trigger the state’s price gouging laws. Unlike a state of emergency, the stay-at-home orders required citizens to refrain from activities. Again, for purposes of any potential rent increases operators must look to relevant state of emergency declarations. Do not assume that because your state has lifted its stay-at-home order that price restrictions do not remain operative. Most states of emergency, and by extension the price going laws, are still in effect and will likely continue to be for some time. 

    How Do the Statutes Practically Work? 

    While the price gouging laws are intended to prevent nefarious actors from excessively profiting from disaster (e.g., selling hand sanitizer for $200 a bottle), their impact and practical effect extends beyond those examples. 

    Although no SSA member would intentionally raise their rental rates dramatically during a declared state of emergency, the laws may affect an operator’s ability to implement even standard rate increases. Operators must pay close attention to the language of the relevant statute. Some statutes are what we refer to as “hard cap” statutes. Those state statutes limit price increases on a firm percentage basis. 

    For example, in California, an operator may not charge a rental price greater than 10 percent more than the amount charged immediately preceding the declaration, subject to certain narrow exceptions. If a California operator charged $100 for a unit immediately preceding the declaration and raised the rent to more than $110 during the state of emergency, the operator may be in violation of the law. 

    Other states take a different approach. For example, in Tennessee, upon the declaration of a state emergency, it is unlawful to charge “grossly excessive” prices for food, construction services, emergency supplies, storage services or other vital goods or services. “Grossly excessive” is not a defined term. Therefore, it is more ambiguous as to what constitutes such as increase and by extension what the permissible parameters are for certain rent increases. Operators should be reasonable. 

    Importantly, many of these laws create so-called strict liability offenses. In other words, it only must be proven that the unlawful rate increase occurred, without a valid exemption provided by the law, not that an operator had a specific intent to violate the law or “gouge” the tenant. 

    Beyond specific price gouging laws, many states’ Attorneys General have announced that they will pursue action against gougers under various consumer protection laws. For example, the Illinois Attorney General announced that the state will pursue price gouging claims under the Illinois Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Business Practices Act. The Attorneys General from Washington, Vermont, Indiana, and Colorado have made similar statements. As such, even if an operator is in a state without a specific price gouging statute, they must be cognizant of other statutes that may be applicable and may limit price increases during and after the pandemic. In these states, again, operators should be reasonable. 


    During the COVID-19 pandemic, members should consult with their legal counsel regarding the application of their state’s pricing laws before changing rental rates for both current and prospective tenants. Given how dynamic the current situation is, members should also frequently monitor announcements and statements from federal, state, and local officials that could extend, modify, or revise their state of emergency as the COVID-19 situation changes. 

    For a general overview of all 50 states price gouging laws, click here. 

    For an overview of the current “expiration” dates of applicable price gouging laws, click here. 

    For additional restrictions operators must comply with related to lien sales, lock outs, and late fees, click here.

  • Friday, July 17, 2020 11:18 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    The California Office of Emergency Services has a chart of various "state of emergencies" to avoid price gouging:


  • Wednesday, July 08, 2020 11:19 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    CEA Logo


    As with all things COVID-19 related, we once again see an unprecedented move with the passing of a temporary "right to reemployment" ordinance that did not require the mayor's signature. On June 23, 2020, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors voted in favor of legislature requiring San Francisco employers with 100 or more employees to "offer a right to reemployment" to certain workers who were laid off due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


    The ordinance was enacted on July 3, 2020 and obligates covered businesses to comply within 30 days (by August 2, 2020). It will remain in effect through September 1, 2020 unless the Board votes to extend it.

    Employers in San Francisco should be aware of the following criteria:

    • Who is covered? Applies to any for-profit or non-profit business operating in San Francisco on or after February 25, 2020 with 100 or more employees. Many healthcare businesses are exempt.
    • How is layoff defined? For purposes of this ordinance, a layoff is considered a separation of employment affecting 10 or more employees within a 30 day period, including business closures. The layoff must have occurred because of the San Francisco's emergency health declaration and/or due to orders to shelter in place during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Who is an eligible worker? An "eligible worker" is an individual who had been employed for at least 90 days at or before the time of layoff.
    • What notice(s) are required? While the ordinance is in effect, employers must provide notice to all "eligible workers" in a language the individual understands which includes the effective date, rehire rights, and the Economic and Workforce Development (OEWD) hotline number. Employers must inform the OEWD within 30 days of the layoff the total number of employees affected with job classifications, original hire dates, and separation dates.
    • Are there record retention requirements? Employers must keep records of each layoff for 2 years including the worker's legal name, job classification, hire date, last known address, email, phone number, and copy of the layoff notice.


    Please continue to check our Additional Resources page for updated information.

    CEA is here to support you during the COVID-19 Crisis.


    Call 800.399.5331 or email us at CEAinfo@employers.org

    California Employers Association
    1451 River Park Drive, #116
    Sacramento, California 95815
    (800) 399-5331   employers.org

    CEA Logo

  • Tuesday, June 16, 2020 12:05 PM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)


    Self Storage Owners and Operators in the City of Los Angeles, 

    The Los Angeles self storage ordinance requires that operators provide notice of the ordinance to their tenants by June 18. The notice must be provided in English and Spanish.

    Click HERE for the mandatory notice in English and Spanish.

    Thank you, 

    Ross Hutchings, CAE
    Executive Director – California Self Storage Association
    5325 Elkhorn Blvd., # 283, Sacramento, CA 95842
    888.CSSA.207 (888.277.2207) – toll-free office, 949.554.3292 – mobile

  • Tuesday, June 02, 2020 8:27 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    Despite significant opposition from the self storage industry, the Los Angeles City Council passed an ordinance requiring self storage owners to defer rent if a tenant is unable to pay for a COVID-related reason and provides documentation to the owner no later than seven days after the rent is due. The deferral lasts until three months after the local emergency period. The ordinance also prohibits late fees on deferred rent and requires that owners provide notice of the ordinance to their tenants.

    We expect the Mayor to sign this ordinance soon. 

    CSSA strongly encourage you to consult with legal counsel before proceeding with lockouts or lien sales in the City of Los Angeles. 

    Additional Moratoriums & Restrictions

    In addition to the new Los Angeles Ordinance, we know of three other cities that have moratoriums or restrictions:

    • Ontario - Moratorium - specially mentions self storage 
    • Livermore - Moratorium (banned) self storage lien sales
    • Pasadena - Eviction Moratorium - "tenant" definition includes self storage 

    New ordinances are being drafted each week. We strongly encourage you to check with both your city and county HERE to see if any such ordinance or moratorium has been passed that would restrict you from lien process, late fees, or imposes repayment timelines.

    CSSA is working closely with SSA to track these ordinances as they arise and attempt to make our case for exempting self storage or challenging the validity with regards to the Self Storage Act. Current sentiment still remains in favor of those tenants who have been financially affected by the Covid-19 restrictions. 

    For more information and updates on Covid-19 restrictions and various articles for help in managing your business during these challenging times, please follow the information on the CSSA website CORONAVIRUS INFORMATION.

  • Tuesday, June 02, 2020 8:13 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    California Cities and Counties Eviction Moratoriums

    Governor Gavin Newsom issued an EXECUTIVE ORDER that authorizes local governments to pause evictions for tenants – both residential and commercial – when the basis for the eviction is non-payment of rent arising out of a substantial decrease in household or business income or substantial out-of-pocket medical expenses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, or by any local, state, or federal government response to COVID-19.

    It is the opinion of CSSA and SSA that neither California law nor the Governor’s order allows local governments to affect the lien rights of self storage operators. California’s self storage lien law is in a different part of the state code and is separate from the state’s eviction laws.

    Nevertheless, we strongly recommend that California operators review each LOCAL ORDER or ORDINANCE carefully – looking for all applicable city and county orders / ordinances – and determine the effect that each has on issues such as self storage lien sales, late fees, and unlawful detainer actions. Although some orders / ordinances have overlapping language, they often have significant, and occasionally subtle, differences such as definitions, repayment periods, and requirements for the tenant to claim the protection of the order / ordinance. We also strongly recommend consultation with experienced legal counsel when dealing with tenants who fail to pay in full. 

    CLICK HERE for California Cities and Counties Eviction Moratoriums


  • Tuesday, June 02, 2020 8:07 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    Moratoriums on Commercial Late Fees, Liens, and Evictions

    As the coronavirus (Covid 19) spreads throughout the United States, several states and localities have enacted restrictions on foreclosures and evictions. Many of these orders that have been issued to date exclusively cover residential evictions and foreclosures. However, as the situation evolves, more states are expanding those restrictions to cover commercial evictions as well. Some of the commercial eviction or foreclosure moratoriums may prevent operators from conducting self storage liens sales, performing overlocks, or imposing late fees.

    Although self storage lien sales are not evictions in the usual sense of that word, the SSA urges all operators to exercise great caution if they operate in an area covered by a moratorium on commercial or non-residential evictions or foreclosures.

    First, self storage lien sales are a form of non-judicial foreclosure. Therefore, an order that imposes a foreclosure moratorium may apply to self storage lien sales. Second, the overall intent of many government restrictions at this time is to keep people at home as much as possible. It arguably frustrates the intent of the orders if a landlord creates a situation that forces a tenant to leave home for a non-essential purpose. Third, the orders are often hastily drafted and vague and do not define the term “eviction”, “foreclosure”, or other key terms in the orders. The overall intent, coupled with the vague wording, indicates that the term “eviction” or “foreclosure” is meant to cover any unilateral action by an operator that terminates a rental agreement. This certainly covers lien sales, even if the primary purpose of a lien sale is to recover unpaid rents.

    The volume of new orders issued daily makes it difficult to provide a comprehensive list of jurisdictions, especially local governments, that have enacted eviction or foreclosure moratoriums. Additionally, in the interest of space, we did not include local orders that affect only residential evictions or lawsuits filed to evict a tenant.


    • Governor issued an order, issuing a statewide moratorium on residential evictions. 
    • Governor also issued an executive order that authorizes local governments to pause evictions for renters. The protection is in effect through May 31, 2020. Tenants are still obligated to pay rent, and landlords can still recover rent that is due. The order only applies to the imposition of limitations on evictions when the basis for the eviction is nonpayment of rent, or a foreclosure, arising out of a substantial decrease in household or business income (including, but not limited to, a substantial decrease in household income caused by layoffs or a reduction in the number of compensated hours of work, or a substantial decrease in business income caused by a reduction in opening hours or consumer  demand), or substantial out-of-pocket medical expenses; and the decrease in household or business income or the out-of-pocket medical expenses was caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, or by any local, state, or federal government response to COVID-19, and is documented.
    • Evictions and foreclosures are suspended only as set forth by local governments. Many localities in California have imposed such restrictions on commercial leases. Additionally, many have restricted the ability to impose any late fees. A complete list of California orders is forthcoming.

    Late fees - If it does not violate your local order (see below) late fees may continue to be assessed as part of your normal business practice. However several operators have reported that they are assessing the late fee but giving their tenants a grace period before it is due.

    Lockouts, liens, auctions - We have heard form several operators that have put a halt on lockouts and/or lien notices/auctions for the month of April, yet others are still pressing forward. If you decide to move forward with auctions, you will need to hold them online as in-person auctions violate the non-gather order for the state of California. 

    Check your local order in place - Whether or not an operator is permitted to assess late fees, liens, lockouts or auctions depends on the orders in place in the city/county where your facility is located within the state of California. You must review your local orders in place, and then make a business decision depending on what is allowed. We also suggest you consult your attorney before making a decision. 

    Here is one link that might help you find your local order: https://www.covid19.ca.gov/state-local-resources/#top  

    Consider the optics - Before making a final determination, you might also want to consider the optics or how this looks to your community. You may want to consider some leniency if other businesses in your area are delaying payments to give those negatively affected by these restrictions, including being furloughed or loosing their job.

    Additional advice is given by Joe Doherty and Daniel Bryant from SSA:

    "Although self storage lien sales are not evictions in the usual sense of that word, the SSA urges all operators to exercise great caution if they operate in an area covered by a moratorium on commercial or non-residential evictions or foreclosures.

    First, self storage lien sales are a form of non-judicial foreclosure. Therefore, an order that imposes a foreclosure moratorium may apply to self storage lien sales. Second, the overall intent of many government restrictions at this time is to keep people at home as much as possible. It arguably frustrates the intent of the orders if a landlord creates a situation that forces a tenant to leave home for a non-essential purpose. Third, the orders are often hastily drafted and vague and do not define the term “eviction”, “foreclosure”, or other key terms in the orders. The overall intent, coupled with the vague wording, indicates that the term “eviction” or “foreclosure” is meant to cover any unilateral action by an operator that terminates a rental agreement. This certainly covers lien sales, even if the primary purpose of a lien sale is to recover unpaid rents."

  • Tuesday, June 02, 2020 8:06 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    On April 7, 2020 the City of Ontario, California passed an eviction moratorium which expressly refers to storage unit auctions. CLICK HERE for a copy of the ordinance press release can be accessed Here The formal order will be made available to Members upon CSSA’s receipt of same.

    Carlos Kaslow, CA attorney and author of California (and many other states) lien laws made the following suggestion:

    "The city of Ontario recently put a hold on using the lien remedy and operators should know this and comply.  It might be helpful if owners put more time discussing delinquency problems with their customers.  There are a number of ways the parties can resolve a payment problem and the lien remedy is the most drastic. If a customer will be hopelessly behind on the rent in 2 or 3 months it might be in everyone's interest to make a deal.  For example, the tenant moves out and the owner waives rent.  If done early the cost to the owner is relatively low.  A tenant who is already behind two or three months may want to abandon property if the owner agrees to waive the outstanding rent. Now is a good time for owners be to looking for solutions other than the lien remedy, even in cities that have not taken Ontario's approach." 

  • Tuesday, June 02, 2020 8:01 AM | Ross Hutchings (Administrator)

    Governor Gavin Newsom signed an executive order on April 4, 2020 expanding consumer protection against price gouging as California continues to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.

    The order generally prohibits sellers of any kind from increasing prices on food, consumer goods, medical or emergency supplies, and certain other items by more than 10 percent. The order also gives additional tools to the California Department of Justice and Attorney General’s Office, among others, to take action against price gougers.

    “This crisis has impacted every Californian and our normal way of life, and we are ensuring that all consumers are able to purchase what they need, at a fair price,” said Governor Newsom.

    A copy of the Governor’s executive order can be found here, and the text of the order can be found here.

California Self Storage Association

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California Self Storage Association
5325 Elkhorn Blvd., #283 
Sacramento, CA 95842

P: 888-CSSA-207 or 888-277-2207

EMAIL: info@californiaselfstorage.org

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